Currently, the world has plenty of research on sports nutrition, the influence of certain products and substances in the physical fitness and performance athletes.
Power athletes is very different from human nutrition, not related to the sport. Athletes consume on average three times more calories, more often observe different diets, more strictly related to the preparation of diets and diet planning. You have to understand that diet and a diet made up can not make do not train the athlete in the Olympic champion, but the importance of healthy food can not be underestimated.
The diet of an athlete should be drawn up with some guidelines:
A. When selecting products should take into account the contents of sporting activities (active training, preparation for a competition, competition, recovery period).
Two. Meals should be balanced and takes into account the peculiarities of the sport and the intensity of stress. Between the amount of essential nutrients, vitamins and trace elements necessary to maintain a balance.
Three. In drawing up the diet should be taken into account the individual characteristics of the athlete: gender, age, physiological, metabolic characteristics, state of the gastrointestinal tract and other organs, the presence of disease, tastes and eating habits.
4. Food intake should be adequate training and competition regime.
Often intense periods of active training and competition eating athletes do not meet elementary standards of nutrition nutrients.
All foods are divided into six major groups, it is important to know when preparing the menu and selecting courses to meet the needs of athletes:
• milk, cheese, dairy products: cheese, yogurt, buttermilk, yogurt;
• meat, poultry, fish, eggs and products made from them;
• flour, bakery products, cereals, sugar, pasta, pastries, potatoes;
• fruits and berries.
The first and second groups of products are the main sources of high-grade animal protein. They contain an optimal set of amino acids and are used to build and update the basic structures of the body.
Vegetables and fruits are the most important suppliers of vitamins C, P, and some B vitamins, mineral salts, a number of trace elements. A very important property of vegetables is their ability to significantly increase the secretion of digestive juices and enhance their enzymatic activity. Meat and fish dishes are better absorbed by the body when they eat with vegetables.
The diet of an athlete should include products of all six groups, particularly dairy and meat, are a source of valuable protein. It is recommended to include food in sufficient fruits and vegetables that are easily digested, as well as supplying the body with carbohydrates, minerals and some vitamins.
For a balanced diet is a very important culinary food processing. It must be cooked so that the beneficial properties of natural products have been saved as
Diet should be given the fact that during the high physical activity lost a lot of energy and fluids, which, in turn, negatively affects the physical condition of the athlete.
In general, athletes are the most preferred so-called fractional power, ie, eating small meals 5-6 times a day.
The most favorable for the meal is the morning from 8.00 to 11.00. Some athletes give up breakfast, and thereby provoke the occasional use of food, resulting in reduced efficiency and increased body fat. If the athlete is under "sgonke 'weight, it is in any case should not start a low-calorie diet with breakfast, for this purpose is better suited lunch or dinner. Breakfast, which contains a sufficient amount of nutrients to avoid such a dangerous physical condition of the "snacks" throughout the day. If the first training accounts for the morning, breakfast should be fairly easy. After the training necessary to remedy the lack of fluids and nutrients in the body, so at this time the diet should consist of fruit juice or milk drinks. A full breakfast can be eaten after a 1.5 h after training. It may consist of oatmeal, bran bread, yogurt and fruit. A hearty breakfast is especially necessary for those athletes who train in the evening. Receiving adequate amounts of food at breakfast for a long time eliminates hunger, charges the body forces and energy.
Food intake should be made in such a way that food is not adopted by the athlete's heavy on the work, and increasing its physical capacity. Before the match athletes should eat no sooner and no later than 5 hours to digest large quantities of food for 3 hours to digest food, caloric content of not less than 600 calories for 1 h to digest liquid food, in less than an hour to receive snack.
After the physical and emotional surge it is important to use a sufficient number of carbohydrates as glycogen in the muscle tissue to be the most rapid recovery after athletic exercises. In the first half hour an athlete should be taken with food at least 150 g carbohydrate intake, followed by the same amount of a substance after 5 h of carbohydrate consumption after the event is important for normal recovery forces and the ability of a fairly rapid return to the training regime. The most harmless source of carbohydrates are fruit juices, fresh fruit and vegetables, unmilled cereals and should be included in the diet of an athlete after at least 6 hours after the event.
The distribution of ration athlete depends largely on how long have the most intense physical activity. If the conduct of training or competition accounts for the morning or afternoon, breakfast should include the maximum amount of carbohydrates and should be sufficiently high-calorie, low volume and digestible. To avoid bowel disorders should not eat before workouts foods high in fat and fiber.
The role of daily meals (lunch) consists in filling the energy expended during training exercises. Calorie meal should be 40% of the daily requirement of calories. Lunch should be a rich assortment of products and rich in proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
Norma calorie meal is 25%. Dinner should be planned in such a way that it contributed to the restoration and replenishment of tissue proteins carbohydrates in the body. Should not be used at this time of indigestible food, the most appropriate to include in the meal, liquid milk products, cheese products, fish dishes, a variety of cereals.
EASY diet (calorie content is 2600 kcal WITHOUT ADDITIVES)
Breakfast: 2 eggs, 250 g low-fat cottage cheese, 150 grams of oatmeal with milk or olive oil 3 slices of dried bread, bran, 200 ml of unsweetened tea or coffee.
Second Breakfast: 2 apples or 2 pears, 1 roll, 250 ml of drinking yoghurt or 200 ml of milk.
Lunch: 200 g of buckwheat or wheat cereal with milk or sauce, scrambled eggs, 2, 200 g of vegetable salad, four slices of rye bread, 50 g low-fat cheese, 200 ml of green tea.
Lunch: 150 g cottage cheese, 100 grams of oatmeal with fresh fruit, yoghurt or 200 ml of juice.
Dinner: 2 slices of bran bread, 300 grams of fruit or vegetables, 200 ml of yogurt.
For 1 hour before sleep: a glass of milk or an apple.
POWERFUL diet (calorie content is 3500 kcal WITHOUT ADDITIVES)
Breakfast: 4 eggs soft-boiled or scrambled eggs from the same number of eggs, 200 grams of oatmeal, two slices of dried bread, an orange or pineapple 200 g.
Second Breakfast: 200 ml drinking yoghurt, 1 banana, 100 g of nuts.
Dinner: 150 grams of cooked turkey meat, or 200 grams of lean beef stew;
200 grams of boiled or stewed potatoes 100 g of vegetable mixture, 200 ml of fruit juice.
Snack: 200 ml milk 150 g of boiled rice, 1 apple or 100 grams of strawberries.
Dinner: 250 grams of boiled sea fish 250 g boiled potatoes, 100 g stewed or fresh grated carrots with vegetable oil.
For 2 h before sleep: 150g porridge with dried fruit, 4 eggs, 200 ml of milk.
If necessary, you can increase the caloric intake of any protein, dietary supplements, meal replacements.
RATION TRADITIONAL TRAINING DAY
Breakfast: 2 eggs, 2 slices of dried bread with jam or honey, 150 grams of oatmeal, 200 ml of milk.
Second Breakfast: an energy bar with a protein, 200 mL of tea or coffee.
Lunch: 300 g of vegetable salad, chicken soup, 500 ml, 250 g of boiled beef, 200 ml of juice with 50 grams of crackers.
Snack: 200 ml berry compote or fruit drink, a bun.
Dinner: 100 grams of boiled or steamed fish, steamed vegetables, 200 g, 200 ml of green tea.
For 1 hour before sleep: a slice of dried bread, bran, 250 ml of fruit milkshake.
RATION AT enhanced training
Breakfast: 300 ml of a high-sports drink, 200 g of boiled rice with addition of fruit or 2 eggs, 2 slices of bread.
Second Breakfast: 100 g of pancakes with syrup, 2 apples or 100 g of fresh pineapple, 200 ml of fruit juice.
Lunch: 300 g of vegetable salad with mayonnaise, 300 g of baked potatoes with cheese, 200 g of turkey meat stew, or 250 g of boiled beef.
Snack: 2 grains tiles; 300 ml sports drink.
Dinner: 200 g boiled marine fish, 150 g of buckwheat, 200 ml of green tea.
Over 1.5 hours of sleep to 200 ml of fruit juice, 150 grams of oatmeal or bran 2 slices of dried bread.
RATION PER DAY EVENT
Breakfast: 200 ml milk 2 small buns with raisins, 200 grams of oatmeal.
Second Breakfast: 1 banana, a sandwich with cheese or meat and 200 mL of tea or coffee, 50 g of dark chocolate.
Lunch: 500 ml of vegetable soup or chicken broth, 300 g of boiled river fish, 200 g of stewed vegetables, 2 slices of dried bread, 200 mL of tea or fruit juice.
Snack: 200 ml of fruit juice, 1 roll, or 60 g of crackers.
Dinner: 200 g of vegetable salad, 150 grams of boiled or stewed chicken, 100 ml of green tea.
For 1.5 h before bedtime: 250 grams of oatmeal, 2 slices of bran bread, 1 apple or a pear, 200 ml of tea with lemon.